Chronology of Anatolia

Chronology of Anatolia

BC

c 10,500 – 7000 Cave dwellings in Karain
c 7000 First settlement at Hacilar, earliest evidence of agriculture in Anatolia
c 6500 – 5500 Catalhoyuk becomes first cultural centre, earliest known religious shrines, pottery, frescoes and statuettes in Anatolia
c 3000 First settlement at Troy
c 1950 Assyrian merchant-colony at Kanesh, first written records in Anatoila
c 1700 – 1450 Old Hittite Kingdom
c 1450 – 1200 Hittite Empire
c 1260 Fall of Troy
c 900 Rise of Urartian culture in eastern Anatolia
c 900 – 800 Rise of Phrygian, Lydian, Carian and Lycian cultures in western Anatolia
c 800 Foundation of Panionic League
c 700 Homer born at Smyrna
c 660 Foundation of Byzantium by Megara
561 – 546 Croesus ruler of Lydia
546 Cyrus of Persia defeats Croesus, Anatolia comes under Persian rule
401 Xenophon and the Ten Thousand begin their expedition to Persia
334 Alexander the Great crosses into Anatolia and defeats the Persians at the battle of the Granicus.
331-333 Alexander conquers Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia and Cilicia
323 Alexander dies at Babylon
301 Lysimachus, one of the generals of Alexander, rules Anatolia
300 Foundation of Antioch
263 Rise of the Attalid kings of Pergamum
133 Death of Attalus III, last king of Pergamum. He bequeaths his kingdom to Rome
80 Commagene kingdom founded in southeastern Anatolia
41 Anthony meets Cleopatra at Tarsus
40 Anthony and Cleopatra marry at Antioch
30 Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide. Octavian makes triumphant visit to Antioch

AD

40 – 56 Journeys of St. Paul. First Christian community established in Antioch
124 Hadrian visits Anatolia
129 Galen born at Pergamum
325 Council of Nicaea
330 Constantinopolis becomes Roman capital
381 Council of Constantinople
392 Christianity made state religion by Thedosius the Great
395 Division of the Roman Empire
431 Counsil of Ephesus
527 – 565 Reign of Justinian the Great. Byzantine power reaches its zenith
1071 Byzantines defeated by Seljuk Turks at Manzikert.
1071 – 1283 Seljuk Turk Empire in Anatolia
1096 Beginning of First Crusade
1204 Latin invasion of Constantinople, during the Fourth Crusade
1299 Foundation of Ottoman State by Osman Gazi
1326 Ottoman Turks take Bursa and make it their first capital
1453 Conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet II.  Istanbul becomes the capital of Ottoman Empire
1517 Ottoman Sultan Selim I captures Cairo and assumes the title of Caliph.
1520-66 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent. The peak of Ottoman power
1571 Turks capture Cyprus
1666 – 1812 Period of intermittent wars between Turks and European powers. Ottoman Empire loses much territory in southern Europe
1839-76 The Tanzimat Period. Program of reform in the Ottoman Empire
1877 Establishment of first Turkish parliament. Dissolved the following year by Sultan Abdulhamit II
1914 Turkey enters World War I as ally of Germany
1915 Turks repel Allied landings on Gallipoli peninsula
1918 Istanbul occupied by Anglo-French army
1919 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk leads Turkish Nationalists in beginning of struggle for national sovereignty
1920 Establishment of Grand National Assembly of Turkey
1923 Establishment of the Turkish Republic with Ataturk as the first president